Dyslexia is manifested by difficulties in learning to read, spell or write despite having adequate intelligence, conventional instruction and sociocultural opportunities. This is one of the standard definitions of dyslexia as formulated by the Texas Education Code.
Some common dyslexia characteristics
The following symptoms are considered to be dyslexia characteristics when they are not developmentally appropriate for the age and cognitive level of the child.
Children and adults with dyslexia display difficulties with phonological awareness and processing of speech sounds. They find it difficult to segment spoken words into separate sounds, for example mat as m-a-t. They are unable to decode nonsense words. They find it difficult to read single words out of context. One of the first dyslexia characteristics is varying degrees of difficulty with reading which is often inaccurate and slow.
Dyslexia characteristics: general signs
People with dyslexia have average to above average intelligence, but their disability hinders their learning and causes them to fall behind their peers.
According to the International Dyslexia Association, one of the dyslexia characteristics is writing and reading letters in the wrong order, but this does not necessarily happen with everyone. Other symptoms are problems with organizing spoken and written language, memorizing, solving math problems.
Dyslexia characteristics: preschool
Dyslexia characteristics may be first noticed in preschool children with their entry in an educational environment. Some of the early warning signs are starting to talk at a later stage compared to other children, a limited vocabulary and problems with pronunciation.
Preschool children may seem to search for certain words and not being able to find the right word to express themselves. They may show difficulty in learning numbers, the alphabet, days of the week or rhyming words.
Other signs may not be language based, showing themselves in peer interaction, appearing distracted, restless or having trouble in following directions.
The IDA has listed other signs such as reversal of letters like “b” for “d”, words such as “pit” for “tip” and uncertainty over small words like “to” and “at.”
Dyslexia characteristics: kindergarten to grade 4
Learning difficulties that go unrecognized may result in a poor foundation in preschool that go on to higher grades, and the child may have trouble reciting the alphabet, counting in order, remembering names of people or places, or learning new skills.
There may be irregularities in fine motor skills such as ineligible handwriting or awkward gripping of writing instruments.
Dyslexia characteristics: grades 4 to 8
Older children with dyslexia read at below grade level and may have problems with word reversals.
They may realize their individual problems and withdraw socially from their peers and avoid reading aloud or writing in front of others, or they may not wish to talk to their peers as they find it difficult to understand non verbal communication such as jokes or slang. They may also have trouble writing compositions, solving math problems, multi tasking and general comprehension.
Am I Dyslexic